Compliance with the principles is required for accreditation to the United Nations, which is carried out only for national institutions, not directly by a United Nations body, but through peer review by the International Coordinating Committee of National Human Rights Institutions (ICDHRD). Institutions accredited by ICDHRD with “A” status, i.e. full compliance with the Paris Principles, have much better access to United Nations treaty committees and other human rights bodies. The Secretariat for the review process (for initial accreditation and renewal of accreditation every five years) is provided by the Regional Mechanisms and National Institutions Section and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (CNDH).  In most countries, the establishment of a national human rights institution is provided for in the Constitution, a human rights law or a specific legislative initiative. The degree of independence of institutions depends on national legislation, and best practices require a constitutional or legal basis rather than (for example) a presidential decree. There are also rights that protect the instructions. National institutions are often able to deal with any human rights issue with the right to require the direct participation of an authority. With regard to non-State actors, some national human rights institutions have at least one of the following functions: In general, however, national human rights institutions have an explicit and specific mandate for the promotion and protection of human rights, which includes the investigation of complaints, documentation and human rights education and training, while the traditional model of the Ombudsman tends to be closer to dealing with complaints about administrative shortcomings, works. While all human rights violations are instances of maladministration, only a small part of an ombudsman`s workload relates to human rights violations.  Courts only try cases and controversies per se – a party must prove that they have suffered harm in order to file their claim in court. This means that the courts do not issue opinions on the constitutionality of laws or on the legality of acts if the judgment has no practical effect. Cases before the judicial system generally range from district courts to courts of appeal and can even go as far as the Supreme Court, although the Supreme Court hears fewer cases per year in comparison.
National human rights institutions (NHRIs) are administrative bodies created to protect and promote human rights in a given country. There are about 112 NHRIs, most of which meet the standards of the Paris Principles and are recognized by the United Nations. National institutions can be divided into two broad categories: human rights commissions and ombudsman offices. Although the functions of most ombudsmen exercise their powers from a single person, human rights commissions have several members and are generally representative of different social groups and political tendencies. Sometimes they are like these, created to deal with specific issues such as discrimination, although some are bodies with very broad responsibilities. Many countries have specialized national institutions to protect the rights of a particularly vulnerable group such as ethnic and linguistic minorities, indigenous peoples, children, refugees or women. It is committed to building a society in which all peoples, regardless of their social, economic, ethnic, physical or other status, are guaranteed their social rights and lead a dignified life. It coordinates the work of nine other social institutions, which we present below. According to the Paris Principles, national human rights institutions are required to produce “reports on the national human rights situation in general and on more specific issues”, which is done mainly in their annual reports.  Federal judges can only be removed from office by impeachment in the House of Representatives and by conviction in the Senate.