As the rational values of the Enlightenment increasingly permeated society in the 18th century, criminal investigation became a more rational and evidence-based procedure – the use of torture to extract confessions was curtailed and belief in witchcraft and other occult powers largely ceased to influence court decisions. Two examples of English forensics in individual proceedings show the increasing use of logic and procedures in criminal investigations at present. In 1784, John Toms was tried and convicted in Lancaster for the murder of Edward Culshaw with a pistol. When Culshaw`s body was examined, a Wad pistol (shredded paper used to secure powder and bullets in the muzzle) found in his head wound matched a torn diary found in Toms` pocket, leading to the conviction.  As long as crimes continue to be committed, there will always be work for criminal lawyers. A criminal will always leave evidence, no matter how small, according to forensic pathologist and “father of forensics” Paul L. Kirk: Forensic science is an essential part of the criminal justice system. Medical examiners examine and analyze evidence from crime scenes and elsewhere to develop objective ideas that can help investigate and prosecute offenders or clear an innocent person of suspicion. In addition, research has shown that misperceptions of criminal forensics can create unrealistic expectations of forensic evidence in the eyes of a jury – which they expect before conviction – implicitly biasing the jury in favour of the accused. Citing the “CSI effect,” at least one researcher has suggested examining the influence of jurors on these television shows.
 Division staff – including public servants, lawyers, law enforcement officers and personnel working in scientific disciplines – rely on and present evidence based on facts and truthfulness. This is particularly important in forensic science, where the credibility of evidence often depends on the integrity of the manipulators, examiners, experts and presenters of that evidence. These documents describe the Department`s policy on scientific research and integrity and its Code of Professional Responsibility for the Practice of Forensics. Bertillon developed many other forensic techniques, including forensic investigation, the use of electroplating connections to preserve footprints, ballistics, and the dynamometer, which is used to determine the degree of force used in burglary and intrusion. Although his central methods were soon replaced by fingerprints, “his other contributions such as the Mug Shot and the systematization of crime scene photography remain to this day.”  Although criminology has preventive components, forensic science does not come into force until after a crime has been committed. A criminal lawyer applies scientific principles to the detection, documentation, preservation and analysis of physical evidence from a crime scene. Forensics can also include crime scene investigations. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) classifies criminal lawyers as forensic technicians.
Most professionals consider forensics to be a specialty in the field of forensics. Criminology and forensics are two subgroups of the criminal justice system. Criminology refers to the study and prevention of crime – usually using behavioral sciences such as sociology, psychology, and anthropology. Forensics refers to a type of forensics – the analysis of physical evidence from a crime scene. Most of a criminal lawyer`s work is done in a laboratory, unless they specialize in crime scene investigations. Their job usually involves identifying important information, collecting and analyzing evidence without contaminating it, and organizing all information and evidence consistently. Song Ci introduced rules for autopsy reports in court, how to protect evidence in the investigative process, and explained why forensic staff must be impartial towards the public.  He developed methods to make antiseptics and promote the recurrence of hidden wounds to corpses and bones (using sunlight and vinegar under an umbrella of red oil);  calculating the time of death (taking into account weather conditions and insect activity);  described how to wash and examine the body to determine the cause of death.  At the time, the book described methods for distinguishing suicide from false suicide.
 In the United States, another area of forensics that has been challenged in recent years is the lack of laws mandating the accreditation of forensic laboratories. Some states require accreditation, but others do not. For this reason, many laboratories have been caught red-handed with very bad work, which has led to false convictions or acquittals. For example, after an audit by the Houston Police Department in 2002, it was discovered that the lab had fabricated evidence that led George Rodriguez to be convicted of raping a fourteen-year-old girl.  The former director of the laboratory stated when asked that the total number of cases that could have been contaminated by improper work could be in the range of 5,000 to 10,000.  Alphonse Bertillon was a French criminologist and founder of anthropometry (the scientific study of the measurements and proportions of the human body). He used anthropometry for identification, explaining that since each individual is unique, measuring aspects of physical difference could create a system of personal identification. He created the Bertillon system around 1879, a method of identifying criminals and citizens by measuring 20 body parts. In 1884, more than 240 repeat offenders were arrested using the Bertillon system, but the system was largely replaced by fingerprints.